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GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm

The GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm is a "stop task" designed to measure response inhibition. The primary response of interest here is the failure to inhibit responding when a "go" cue is unexpectedly accompanied by a "stop" cue.

GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm

In this task, 5-digit numbers are presented in rapid sequence. Half of these numbers are target trials (matching stimuli) and half are filler trials (novel stimuli). This task features "stop" trials for half of all target trials, where the matching number presented in black (the go cue) changes to red (the stop cue) at intervals ranging from 50 to 350 msec after the stimulus presentation. Participants are instructed to response while the matching number is still on the monitor, but not to respond if that number turns red. The main impulsivity variable obtained from this task is the percentage of inhibition failures, which is calculated from the number of responses made to stop trials divided by the total number of stop trials.

GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm Bibliography

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    Addictive Behavior, 65, 147-153.

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    Appetite, 112, 1-8. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

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    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 159, 5-61. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

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    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 264-271 PubMed Icon

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    Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11, 812-822. PubMed Icon

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    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 302-311 PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

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    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 409-417. PubMed Icon

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    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112, 164-167. PubMed Icon

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    Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2, 128-141

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    Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 1050-1057. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

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    Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 429-434

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  • Impact of stress on different components of impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

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    Psychological Medicine, 44, 3329-3340. PubMed Icon

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    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 15-22.

  • Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger

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    Eating Behaviors, 18, 156-159. PubMed Icon

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    Frontiers in Psychology, 6:1012. PubMed Icon

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    Valderrama, J., Miranda, R., Jeglic, E. (2016).

    Psychiatry Research, 236, 15-21. PubMed Icon

  • Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder

    Jiang W, Li G, Liu H, Shi F, Wang T, Shen C, Shen H, Lee SW, Hu D, Wang W, Shen D. (2016)

    Neuroscience, 337, 143-152. PubMed Icon

  • Executive (Dys)Functioning and Impulsivity as Possible Vulnerability Factors for Aggression in Forensic Patients.

    Tonnaer, F., Cima, M., and Arntz, A. (2016)

    Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 280-286. PubMed Icon

  • Modeling impulsivity in forensic patients: A three-dimensional model of impulsivity

    Tonnaer, F., CIma, M., and Arntz, A. (2016).

    American Journal of Psychology, 129, 429-441.

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    Dougherty DM, Mathias CW, Marsh DM, Moeller FG, Swann AC (2004).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76s, s93-s105 PubMed Icon

  • Are personality and behavioral measures of impulse control convergent or distinct predictors of health behaviors?

    Edmonds GW, Bogg, T, and Roberts, BW (2009)

    Journal of Personality, 43, 806-814.

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    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105, 89-96 PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Severity of bipolar disorder is associated with impairment of response inhibition.

    Swann AC, Lijffijt M, Lane SD, Moeller FG (2009).

    Journal of Affective Disorders, 116, 30-36. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • The effects of progesterone pretreatment on the response to oral d-amphetamine in women

    Reed, SC, Levin FR, and Evans SM (2010).

    Hormones and Behavior, 58, 533-543. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • The relationship between self-report and lab task conceptualizations of impulsivity

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    Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 121-124.

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    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20, 454-465. PubMed Icon

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    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43, 460-467. PubMed Icon

  • Heroin and amphetamine users display opposite relationships between trait and neurobehavioral dimensions of impulsivity

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    Addictive Behavior, 39, 652-629. PubMed Icon

  • Neurocognitive and psychiatric dimensions of hot, but not cool, impulsivity predict HIV sexual risk behaviors among drug users in protracted abstinence.

    Wilson, M. J., and Vassileva, J. (2016).

    American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 42, 231-241. PubMed Icon

  • The effects of oral d-amphetamine on impulsivity in smoked and intranasal cocaine users.

    Reed, S. C., Evans, S. M. (2016).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163, 141-152. PubMed Icon

  • Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

    Ahn, W.Y., and Vassileva, J. (2016).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 161, 247-257. PubMed Icon

  • Do individuals higher in impulsivity drink more impulsively? A pilot study within a high risk sample of young adults.

    Stevens AK, Littlefield AK, Talley AE, Brown JL. (2016).

    Addictive Behavior, 65, 147-153. PubMed Icon

  • The effects of heroin administration and drug cues on impulsivity

    Jones JD, Vadhan NP, Luba RR, Comer SD. (2016).

    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38, 709-720. PubMed Icon

  • Effects of tryptophan depletion and a simulated alcohol binge on impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mullen, J., Hill-Kapturczak, N., Liang, Y., Karns, T. E., Lake, S. L., Mathias, C. M., and Roache, J. D. (2015).

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 109-121. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Intolerance to delayed reward in girls with multiple suicide attempts.

    Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., James, L. M., Richard, D. M., Dawes, M. A., Acheson, A., and Hill-Kapturczak, N. (2011).

    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41, 277-286. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition.

    Acheson, A., Richard, D. M., Mathias, C. W., and Dougherty, D. M. (2011).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117, 198-203. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on three types of behavioral impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Richard, D. M., James, L. M., and Mathias, C. W. (2010).

    International Journal of Tryptophan Research, 3, 99-111. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Prevette, K. N., Dawes, M. A., Hatzis, E. S., Palmes, G., and Nouvion, S. O. (2009)

    Psychiatry Research, 169, 22-27 PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Distinctions in behavioral impulsivity: Implications for substance abuse research.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Furr, R. M., Nouvion, S. O., and Dawes, M. A. (2009)

    Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 8, 61-73. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review.

    Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., and Patton, J. H. (2009).

    Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 385-395.

  • A test of alcohol dose effects on multiple behavioral measures of impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Hatzis, E. S., Nouvion, S. O., and Mathias, C. W. (2008).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 96, 111-120. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity.

    Mathias, C. W., Marsh, D.M., and Dougherty, D. M. (2006).

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  • Behavioral impulsivity paradigms: A comparison in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Dougherty, D. M., Bjork, J. M., Harper, R. A., Marsh, D. M., Moeller, F. G., Mathias, C. W, and Swann, A. C. (2003).

    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 1145-1157. PubMed Icon

  • Comparison of women with high and low trait impulsivity using laboratory impulsivity models of response-disinhibition and reward-choice.

    Marsh, D. M., Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Moeller, F. G., and Hicks, L. R. (2002).

    Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1291-1310.

  • A test of the psychometric characteristics of the BIS-Brief among three groups of youth

    Mathias, C. W., Stanford, M. S., Liang, Y., Goros, M., Charles, N. E., Sheftall, A. H., Mullen, J., Hill-Kapturczak, N., Acheson, A., Olvera, R. L., and Dougherty, D. M. (2018).

    Psychological Assessment, 30, 847-865. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon