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Time Paradigm

The Time Paradigm is used to measure time perception by asking the participant to estimate when one minute has passed. The measurement of time perception has been useful for studying the behavior of impulsive individuals where timing of cognitive and behavioral events are thought to be inherently disrupted.

Time Paradigm

The Time Paradigm was developed for the assessment of time perception. This program allows for numerous changes in parameter settings for the systematic exploration of time perception, as well as the effect of performance feedback and reinforcement/punishment on time perception. The measurement of time perception has been useful for studying the behavior of impulsive individuals where timing of cognitive and behavioral events are thought to be inherently disrupted. For the impulsive person, time seems to pass more slowly causing them to guess, for example, that five minutes have elapsed when only four minutes have actually passed. The accuracy of time perception has been negatively related to both laboratory behavioral (e.g., Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and self-report (Barratt Impulsivity Scale) measures of impulsivity. One exception is that this relationship is not maintained for shorter time intervals (i.e., 1-10 seconds).

Time Paradigm Bibliography

  • Laboratory measures of impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh, D. M., Jagar, A. A. (2005).

    Behavior Research Methods, 37, 82-90. PubMed Icon

  • Positive Urgency Is Related to Difficulty Inhibiting Prepotent Responses.

    Johnson, SL; Tharp, JA; Peckham, AD; Sanchez, AH; Carver, CS (2016).

    Emotion, 16, 750-759. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Ethanol-induced autonomic responses and risk taking increase in young adults with a positive family history of alcohol problems.

    Caneto F, Pautassi RM, Pilatti A. (2018).

    Addictive Behavior, doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.008

  • The effects of subjective time pressure and individual differences on hypotheses generation and action prioritization in police investigations.

    Alison L, Doran B, Long ML, Power N, Humphrey A. (2013).

    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19, 83-93. PubMed Icon

  • The role of impulsivity in the relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation.

    Shaefer KE, Esposito-Smythers C, Riskind JH. (2012).

    Journal of Affective Disorders, 143, 95-101. PubMed Icon

  • When time flies: How abstract and concrete mental construal affect the perception of time.

    Hansen J, Trope Y. (2013).

    Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 336-347. PubMed Icon

  • Impulsiveness and time perception in alcohol dependent patients in alcoholic rehabilitation treatment.

    Cangemi, S., Giorgi, I., Bonfiglio, N. S., Ranati, R., and Vittadini, G. (2010).

    Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia, Supplemento B, Psicologia, 32, B24-B28.

  • Impulsivity and risk-taking in co-occurring psychotic disorders and substance abuse.

    Duva, S. M., Silverstein, S. M., and Spiga, R. (2011).

    Psychiatry Research, 186, 351-355. PubMed Icon

  • A double-blind trial of the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin and mineral supplementation on aggression, impulsivity, and stress

    Long S-J, Benton D. (2013).

    Human Psychopharmacology, 28, 238-247. PubMed Icon

  • The relationship between self-report and lab task conceptualizations of impulsivity

    Cyders MA, and Coskunpinar A (2012).

    Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 121-124.

  • Impulsive and premeditated subtypes of aggression in Conduct Disorder: Differences in time estimation.

    Dougherty, D. M., Dew, R. E., Mathias, C. W., Marsh, D. M., Addicott, M. A., and Barratt, E. S. (2007).

    Aggressive Behavior, 33, 574-582 PubMed Icon

  • Validation of the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Dougherty, D. M., Bjork, J. M., Harper, R. A., Mathias, C. W., Moeller, F. G., and Marsh, D. M. (2003).

    Psychological Record, 53, 509-532.